PACIFIC FREEDOM

  • General
    • Vessel Name : PACIFIC FREEDOM
    • Operator : KIRBY INLAND MARINE, LP
    • Ships Type (ICST) : Tugboat
    • Vessel Type : Tugboat
    • Construction : Steel
  • Engine
    • Horsepower rating : 4300
  • Location
    • City : SEATTLE
    • STATE : WA
  • Capacity
    • Net Tonnage : 120
  • Size
    • Register length : 120 Feet
    • Regular Breadth : 31 Feet
    • Overall Length : 120 Feet
    • Overall Breadt : 31 Feet
    • Load draft : 13.5 Feet
    • Light Draft : 12.7 Feet
    • Height : 46.6 Feet
  • Other
    • Year : 1969
    • EQUIP1 : NONE
    • Coast Guard Number : 521494

KIRBY INLAND MARINE, LP

  • Area of Operation : GULF INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY; MISSISSIPPI, TOMBIGBEE AND WARRIOR RIVER SYSTEMS; ILLINOIS, OHIO AND TENNESSEE RIVERS
  • Principal Commodity : CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

KIRBY

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Sided Only)
  • Construction : Steel

BRIDGET CAULLEY

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BRONCO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BUCKSKIN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAMERON BLAIR

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. ALPHA DOUCET

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. BILL IKNER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. CHARLIE LAWRENCE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. DANIEL CLEMENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. FRANK GIBSON

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. FRANK STALLINGS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. JAMES HOOVER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. JIM GREEN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. REGGIE LEBOEUF

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. RONNIE PAYNE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPT. SHORTY C

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAPTAIN BILL ENGLISH

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

CAROLE L. BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CHALLENGER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CHARLOTTE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CHESLEY E

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CINDY BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF CHICAGO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF FREEPORT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF GREENVILLE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF JOLIET

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF JONESVILLE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF LOUISVILLE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF NATCHEZ

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF NEW ORLEANS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF PADUCAH

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF PITTSBURGH

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF REDWOOD

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CITY OF VICKSBURG

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

COLORADO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

COMAL

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CREOLE MAMA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CREOLE TUT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

CULLEN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DADE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

DAN L

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DAVIS SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

DAYTONA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DENNIS CHAMBERS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE CHALLENGE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE COURAGE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE EXPRESS

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE LEADER

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE PRINCE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE RAIDER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE RENEGADE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE TRAVELER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE VALOUR

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE VANDAL

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE VENGEANCE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DIXIE VOLUNTEER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

DUBLIN SEA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

EARL JONES

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

EL LOBO GRANDE II

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

EL PASO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ELIZABETH BLEILER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ELIZABETH R

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ELLIS DAVIS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ELOY RIVERA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

ENTERPRISE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ESCAMBIA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

FILLY

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

FLORIDA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

FRANCIS BENEDICT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

GALVESTON

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

GARY REED

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

GREENLAND SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

GUADALUPE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

HENRY J. SOUDELIER III

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

HONDO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

HOUMA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

HOUSTON

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

INDIAN RIVER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

IRISH SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

J. E. O'DONNELL

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

JANICE CAROL

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

JAVA SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

JEFF MONTGOMERY

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

JESSICA BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

JIMMY SAULS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

JOHN BRIX

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

KEY WEST

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

KIMBERLY JANE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

L. C. WILLIAMS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LABRADOR SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

LAMPASAS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LANA LOUISE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LAREDO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LAVACA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LEON JOHNSON

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LEVITICUS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LIME ROCK

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LINCOLN SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

LLANO

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

LOU NATARO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LOUIE LEONE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LUCILLE BROOKS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LUCY W. HINES

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LYDIA BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MARATHON

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MARCIA LYNN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MARK L

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MARYLAND

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

MCKINLEY SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

MEDINA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

MELINDA BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MIAMI

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

MICHAEL MCCREERY

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MIDAS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MIKE BIRD

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MISS BETTYE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MISS HEATHER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MISS RACHEL

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MISS ROLANETTE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MISS SUSAN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MISSION

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MOBILE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

MORGAN CITY

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

MR. BENNETT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NAINA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NAKOA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NAKOLO

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NAKUE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Aluminum

NATHAN E STEWART

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NAUPAKA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NAVIDAD

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NECHES

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NENE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NICEVILLE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NICKIE B

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NICOLE BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NOHEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NOHOLOA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NOKE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NOKEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NORTH SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NORTH WIND

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NORWEGIAN SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

NUECES

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

NUNUI

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

OBSERVER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

OLD PUSH

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ORION

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

OSPREY

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PACESETTER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PACIFIC AVENGER

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PACIFIC CHALLENGER

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PACIFIC EAGLE

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PACIFIC RAVEN

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PACIFIC WOLF

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PALO DURO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PALOMINO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PARAGON

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PASS CHRISTIAN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PAULINE M.

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PEBBLE BEACH

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PECOS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PEDERNALES

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PENSACOLA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

PORT ARTHUR

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

PRIDE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

REBEL

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

RIVERSIDE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ROAN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ROBERT G. STONE JR.

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

ROSS SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

ROY BAKER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SABINAL

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SAINT CRISPIN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SAN JACINTO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SEA HAWK

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

SENATOR STENNIS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SIBERIAN SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

SIRIUS

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

SONORA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SPIRIT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

STALLION

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SUNFISH

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

SUSAN ELIZABETH

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

TAMPA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

TASMAN SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

TAURUS

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

TED B

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

THOR

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

TIGER

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

TINY SANDERSON

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

TRINITY

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

VENTURE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

VIKING

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

VOLUNTEER

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

VOYAGER

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

W. C. BINION JR.

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

WALTER S

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

WEDDELL SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

ZEPHYR

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ZEUS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ACHILLES

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ADRIATIC SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

AGAMEMNON

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

AJAX

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

AL MIDDLETON

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ALICE JEAN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ALTAIR

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

ANGELINA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ANN BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ANTIGONE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

APOLLO

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

APPALOOSA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ARABIAN

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ARABIAN SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

ARANSAS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ARCHIE WILSON

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

ATHENA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

ATLAS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

AURORA

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BARENTS SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

BEAUFORT SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

BERING SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

BETTY BRENT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BIG AL

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BIG BAY

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BILL GARVEY

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BISMARCK SEA

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

BLANCO

  • Type : Tugboat
  • Construction : Steel

BLUEFISH

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BOCA GRANDE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BONNIE SUE

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BRAZOS

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

BREWSTER KNOTT

  • Type : Pushboat
  • Construction : Steel

LEMON CREEK

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

LEO

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

NA-KAO

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

NO

  • Type : Other Liquid Cargo Barge Not Elsewhere Included
  • Construction : Steel

NO.

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

PACIFIC

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

PUGET SOUNDER

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

REM

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

RIGEL

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

SASANOA

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

RA

  • Type : Flat / Deck Barge
  • Construction : Steel

ANTARES

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

CAPELLA

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

CASCADES

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

DBL

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

DENEB

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

KAYS POINT

  • Type : Liquid Cargo Barge (Double Hull)
  • Construction : Steel

News

USS Nevada Shipwreck Located

USS Nevada Shipwreck Located

The wreck of one of the U.S. Navy's longest serving battleships has been found 15,400 feet beneath the surface about 65 nautical miles southwest of Pearl Harbor, researchers said Monday.The USS Nevada (BB-36), which served in two world wars over the course of a career that spanned more than three and a half decades, was discovered by underwater and terrestrial archaeology firm SEARCH, Inc.

Carnival Plans to Resume Some Voyages in August

Carnival Plans to Resume Some Voyages in August

Carnival Corp announced Monday it plans to resume certain North American voyages in August as it tries to rebound from the coronavirus pandemic, which has idled its ships since March.The company said its Carnival Cruise Line brand intends to restart cruises on eight ships from Miami (Carnival Horizon, Carnival Magic and Carnival Sensation)

Austal Wins Contract to Build Six Australian Navy Patrol Boats

Austal Wins Contract to Build Six Australian Navy Patrol Boats

Shipbuilder Austal Australia has been awarded a A$324 million (US$209.8 million) contract to design and construct six evolved Cape-class Patrol Boats (CCPBs) for the Royal Australian Navy.It is the largest contract for an Australian vessel construction program ever awarded to Austal in the company’s 30-year history.

All Sailors on US Aircraft Carrier to be Tested for COVID-19

All Sailors on US Aircraft Carrier to be Tested for COVID-19

All 5,000 personnel aboard the aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt will be tested for the coronavirus after the number of sailors on the ship who have tested positive for the virus increased, U.S. Navy officials said on Thursday.The move is the latest example of the coronavirus’s impact on the military.Acting U.S.

Swire Adds Newbuild MV Changsha

Swire Adds Newbuild MV Changsha

As COVID-19 coverage dominates the world’s news cycle, it’s a pleasure to report on a new ship delivery, Swire Shipping’s first 2400TEU newbuild vessel, MV Changsha. The vessel was built at CSSC Huangpu Wenchong Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., in China, and will be deployed on Swire Shipping’s South East Asia to Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands service.

Opinion: Maritime Freedom & the Global Commons

Opinion: Maritime Freedom & the Global Commons

“Freedom” – the absence of subjection to foreign domination or despotic governmentIt has been decades since international relations in the world order dictated true competition for sea control, sea lines of communication, access to world markets, and diplomatic partnerships. However, it is becoming increasingly alarming that nations such as Iran

FMC Commissioner Sees Some Normalcy Returning to Shipping

FMC Commissioner Sees Some Normalcy Returning to Shipping

A U.S. Federal Maritime Commissioner said he sees some normalcy returning to trans-Pacific shipping amid widespread upheaval brought on by the coronavirus outbreak.Many Chinese manufacturing and logistics services have been severely hampered by the COVID-19 pandemic, in some cases forcing ocean carriers to cancel services to and from China and the U.S.

Murphy Charters Pacific Drilling Drillship for Mexico Wells

Murphy Charters Pacific Drilling Drillship for Mexico Wells

Deepwater drilling rig contractor Pacific Drilling has found more work for its Pacific Sharav drillship.The drilling company on Wednesday revealed that Murphy Oil had hired the drillship for work offshore Mexico. According to the fleet status report, Murphy has agreed to charter the unit for two firm wells and one optional well.

Fincantieri Marinette to Build Saudi Warships

Fincantieri Marinette to Build Saudi Warships

A Lockheed Martin-led team has secured a multibillion dollar order from the U.S. Navy to build four Multi-Mission Surface Combatants ships for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as part of the U.S.’s Foreign Military Sales program.Fincantieri Marinette Marine (FMM), who has been working with Lockheed Martin

LCS 19 Completes Acceptance Trials

LCS 19 Completes Acceptance Trials

Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) 19, the future USS St. Louis, has completed acceptance trials in Lake Michigan and will now undergo final outfitting and fine-tuning before delivery to the US Navy early next year.Christened and launched on December 15, 2018, LCS 19 was built by Marinette Marine in Marinette, Wis. The vessel is the seventh ship in naval service named after St. Louis, Mo.

Pirates Attack Anchor Handler off Equatorial Guinea

Pirates Attack Anchor Handler off Equatorial Guinea

Pirates have abducted seven crew members from an anchor handling tug supply (AHTS) vessel offshore Equatorial Guinea, the vessel's owner Swire Pacific Offshore (SPO) said.The Singaporean-flagged Pacific Warden was attacked on November 20, 2019 at approximately 5 a.m. local time, while supporting offshore field operations in Equatorial Guinea, SPO confirmed on Sunday.

Maritime History & the Panama Canal

Maritime History & the Panama Canal

The Panama Canal is a strategic crossroads for maritime traffic, and is arguably one of the most important maritime developments in the past century. Here we take a deeper dive into the history behind that famous strip of waterway.The present canal, which saw its first vessel transits in 1914, along with possible alternatives through Nicaragua and Mexico